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Types of Fossils
 
 
Types of Fossils:
"Fossils may be preserved in several ways. The main ways are (1) the formation of impressions, molds, and casts; (2) carbonization; and (3) the action of minerals."  (Stanley, Steven M. "Fossil." World Book Student, World Book, 2018, www.worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar207520. Accessed 16 Mar. 2018.)
 
  1. Impression, Molds, or Casts: The shape of a fossils is preserved through mineralization of the inside or outside of the fossil.
  2. Carbonization:  "As decaying tissues break down into their chemical parts, most of the chemicals disappear. In carbonization, a thin, black film of carbon remains in the shape of the organism. Plants, fish, and soft-bodied creatures have been preserved in precise detail by carbonization." (Stanley, Steven M. "Fossil." 
  3. Minerals:  "Many plants and animals became fossilized after water that contained minerals soaked into the pores of the original hard parts."
  4. Trace Fossil: Fossils formed that show evidence of life like foot prints.  

Citation

Stanley, Steven M. "Fossil." World Book Student, World Book, 2018, www.worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar207520. Accessed 16 Mar. 2018.

Classification of Fossils
 
 

Name

Ocean, coastline, or land?

Time period

Pelecypods-

"Pelecypods (peh-les'-i-pods) include oysters, clams, mussels, and cockles. They have been found in some of the oldest marine rocks known and still are very numerous in the seas and rivers today.

Most pelecypods, also know as bivalves, have two shells that are mirror images of each other, one on the right and one on the left. 

Most pelecypods form shell banks in the seas or rivers on sand and mud flats. Many burrow into the mud or sand and even into wood or rock.

Fossil clams are common in some Pennsylvanian rock formations in central Illinois and in some Ordovicianlimestones in northern and western Illinois.

(https://www.isgs.illinois.edu/outreach/geology-resources/pelecypods

coastline  

Bryozoan- (https://www.nps.gov/maca/learn/education/upload/fossil_identification_workbook_2010.pdf)


 Ocean

Paleozoic

Echinoid OR Brachiopod

 "Echinoids have lived in the seas since the Late Ordovician, about 450 million years ago. The living representatives of echinoids are the familiar sea-urchins that inhabit many shallow coastal waters of the world.

Echinoids are marine animals belonging to the phylum Echinodermata and the class Echinoidea. They have a hard shell (test) covered with small knobs (tubercles) to which spines are attached in living echinoids. The test and spines are the parts normally found as fossils.

Spines, some poison-tipped, help protect echinoids from their predators, which include other echinoids, crustaceans, octopuses and fish. Some fossil echinoids made themselves less palatable as prey by having large solid spines. Echinoids also use their spines for moving around the sea-bed, and in some groups they are specially adapted for burrowing.(http://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/time/Fossilfocus/echinoid.html).

 

 Ocean  

Brachiopod (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/time/Fossilfocus/brachiopod.html)

mucrospirifer (extinct form of brachiopod) http://www.fossils-facts-and-finds.com/mucrospirifer.html

http://www.fossils-facts-and-finds.com/crinoids.html

 

"Brachiopods are virtually defenceless and their shell, enclosing the animal's organs, is their only protection. Most are permanently attached by a fleshy stalk (the pedicle) to a hard, sea-floor surface, such as a rock outcrop, boulder or some other shell, and are incapable of actively pursuing food.

(http://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/time/Fossilfocus/brachiopod.html) 

"Brachiopods have a very long history of life on Earth (at least 550 million years). They first appear as fossils in rocks of earliest Cambrian age, and their descendants survive, albeit relatively rarely, in today's oceans and seas. They were particularly abundant during the Palaeozoic Era (248 to 545 million years ago), and are often the most common fossils in rock of that age.

Brachiopods are marine animals belonging to their own phylum, Brachiopoda, of the animal kingdom. Modern brachiopods occupy a variety of sea-bed habitats ranging from the Tropics to the cold waters of the Arctic and, especially, Antarctic.

 Ocean

Devonian

Side Necked Turtle- "This was the most common sea turtle in our area 77 million years ago and the fossilize shell pieces show that some individuals were very large with shells up to two inches thick.

Some references state that Bothremys barberi was a fresh to brackish water turtle. It is also referred to as the “paving stone” turtle because fossil of its shell can be large and relatively flat, like paving stones. 

These ancient side-necked turtles are different from Georgia’s modern turtle populations. Our modern turtles can pull their heads straight back into their shells when sensing danger, some even have a plate which will pull up like a door sealing the shell. 

Side-necked turtles can only fold their rather long necks between their front legs and lay their head to one side. This leaves the other side of their head and part of their neck exposed.

The side-necked turtles which knew Georgia when the dinosaurs walked are now extinct but about 70 species of related freshwater side-necked turtles endure in the Southern Hemisphere." (http://www.georgiasfossils.com/6e-side-necked-turtles.html)
 Ocean

Devonian

Large clam- same family group as Pelecypods-

"Pelecypods (peh-les'-i-pods) include oysters, clams, mussels, and cockles. They have been found in some of the oldest marine rocks known and still are very numerous in the seas and rivers today.

Most pelecypods, also know as bivalves, have two shells that are mirror images of each other, one on the right and one on the left. 

Most pelecypods form shell banks in the seas or rivers on sand and mud flats. Many burrow into the mud or sand and even into wood or rock.

(https://www.isgs.illinois.edu/outreach/geology-resources/pelecypods

 coastline

Devonian

Fern/plant- https://www.britannica.com/plant/seed-fern

"During the Pennsylvanian period, Northwest Georgia was covered by swamps near a river delta. Georgia lay south of the equator, part of the supercontinent of Pangaea, which formed 335 million years ago by the collision of Euramerica and Gondwana. To the east lay the newly formed Appalachian Mountains.  

The Ridge and Valley Region of Northwest Georgia contains an abundance of Paleozoic Era fossils between 541 and 242 million years old.
 
The last and most common group of fossils are the pteridosperms or seed ferns.  True ferns reproduce via tiny, microscopic spores.  Seed ferns have fronds similar to ferns but reproduce via groups of seeds on specific branches. Some of the seeds could be as large at 3 inches. Seed ferns varied in size from small shrub like ferns to small trees." (http://www.georgiasfossils.com/4a-georgiarsquos-pennsylvanian-plant-fossils.html)

land

Devonian

Sea lily (Crinoid)- https://www.nps.gov/maca/learn/education/upload/fossil_identification_workbook_2010.pdf

 


 Ocean

Devonian

Shark teeth

http://www.georgiasfossils.com/6b-so-many-sharks.html

 

Many types of sharks lived in prehistoric Georgia - the oldest teeth date back about 375 million years. One of the largest extinct species of shark tooth was megalodon." (https://statesymbolsusa.org/symbol-official-item/georgia/state-dinosaur-fossil/shark-tooth)

Georgia designated the shark tooth as the official state fossil in 1976. All State Fossils

A fairly common fossil on the Georgia coastal plain, fossilized shark teeth are prized by collectors. These prehistoric shark teeth are found in a range of colors - most common are black or gray, less common are the white, brown, blue, and reddish-brown teeth.

Washed up on shore (sharks shed teeth frequently)

Devonian


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